Ultimate Guide to MPPT Solar Charge Controller - Jackery Australia

Ultimate Guide to MPPT Solar Charge Controller

Solar power systems are designed to capture the energy emitted by the sun, subsequently converting it into electrical energy, which is then stored in batteries for future utilization. To operate efficiently, you must maximize battery charging.

When your solar panels capture solar energy, the resulting output exceeds the capacity of your batteries. For your system to function, you must regulate the flow into the battery to ensure the most efficient flow and storage. An MPPT solar charge controller performs this function for the system.

mppt solar charge controller

This ultimate guide to the MPPT solar charge controller covers everything you need to know, including what it is, its benefits, how it operates, MPPT vs. PWM, and how to determine your controller size. In the meantime, we strongly recommend Jackery Portable Power Station, equipped with an MPPT solar charge controller, to ensure a consistent and seamless flow of electricity.

Key Takeaways:

  • MPPT is an efficient DC-to-DC converter used to optimize the power output of a solar system.

  • The MPPT solar charge controller facilitates the operation of the solar panel at its maximum power point, wherein the appropriate voltage and current are maintained to provide the highest power production.

  • It has multiple benefits, such as higher power transfer efficiency, fewer solar panels needed, suitable for any weather, and suitable for larger solar systems.

  • When the MPPT charge controller works, it is usually related to solar panels and battery voltage.

  • MPPT outweighs PWM in many aspects. For example, it works better in weather conditions and is compatible with various solar panels.

  • We highly recommend Jackery Explorer 2000 Pro, 1000 Pro, and 500 portable power stations with high-quality MPPT charge controllers for the entire use of solar energy.

What Is Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT)?

MPPT is an efficient DC-to-DC converter used to optimize the power output of a solar system. The initial development of the first MPPT technology may be attributed to AERL, a modest Australian enterprise, in 1985. Since then, this groundbreaking innovation has become integral to most grid-connected solar inverters and MPPT solar charge controllers.

Due to the fluctuating quantity of sunlight (irradiance) striking a solar panel throughout the day, the voltage and current of the panel continuously vary.

A Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) sweeps through the panel voltage to discover the optimal voltage and current combination for maximum power generation. The MPPT continuously monitors and modifies the PV voltage to maximize energy production, regardless of the time of day or weather conditions.

What Is MPPT Solar Charger Controller?

A solar charge controller, or a solar regulator, is a solar battery converter connecting the solar panels and the battery. It is responsible for regulating the battery charging process and ensuring that it is charged correctly and, more importantly, not overcharged.

Modern solar charge controllers include features such as DC load output for illumination, ensuring the battery system is charged precisely and efficiently. The MPPT solar charge controller facilitates the operation of the solar panel at its maximum power point, wherein the appropriate voltage and current are maintained to provide the highest power production. 

MPPT solar charge controllers can achieve a higher efficiency level, up to 30%, by using innovative technology based on the solar panel's operational voltage (Vmp). Below is a detailed explanation of the increased efficacy and how to correctly size an MPPT charge controller.  

Your solar power system's MPPT solar charge controller is a DC-to-DC converter. It converts the voltage from the solar panels to a more suitable level for charging the battery. The optimization prevents the loss of energy that your system captures and generates, maximizing the amount of electricity that can be stored and utilized.

What Are The Benefits of An MPPT Charge Controller?

Utilizing an MPPT solar charge controller improves the effectiveness and functionality of your solar generator. It provides several advantages that help you save money and recover your initial investment in a solar energy system faster.

  • Higher Efficiency of Power Transfer: Both solar charge converters influence the flow of electricity from solar panels to the battery. The current is crucial since the battery can only hold so much power simultaneously. Sending an extensive current to the battery will result in significant energy loss. But because the MPPT controls the voltage and current, your system can store more of the solar panels' rated wattage.

  • Fewer Solar Panels Required: When each solar panel produces more energy, you may require fewer panels to meet your energy needs. Primarily, purchasing a lesser solar array allows you to save money. Fewer solar panels also provide greater placement flexibility. You can position your solar panels on the portions of your roof that are optimal for absorbing and converting sunlight into electricity.  

  • Suitable for Any Weather: A key to solar energy is that storing energy when the sun is not shining allows you to meet your energy requirements effectively. The maximal power point fluctuates throughout the day on cloudy days. The longer you deviate from this optimal equilibrium, the less efficiently your system can function. The MPPT solar charge controller adapts to varying environmental conditions and enables your system to maintain maximum output.

  • Suitable for Large Solar Systems: Given the inevitability of energy loss between the time sunlight strikes your panels and the time electricity flows through your system, enhancements to each panel yield substantial returns for your entire array over time. Using an MPPT controller for extensive collections of solar panels will substantially increase the available energy.

How Does An MPPT Charge Controller Work?

The high-frequency DC-to-DC converter is the MPPT. They convert the DC input from the solar panels to high-frequency AC before converting it back to a distinct DC voltage and current to match the panels and batteries precisely. MPPTs typically operate at audio frequencies between 20 and 80 kHz. (Data Source: MPPT Scientist Report)

Achieving optimal power output from a solar system necessitates the appropriate pairing of amperage and voltage. Wattage is the result of multiplying amps by voltages. If your battery can only store 12 volts, the amperage must be sufficient to attain the total wattage that your panel should generate.

Manually determining this can be challenging. The panel must output more voltage than the battery to achieve balance, so the quantities are not identical. Maximum power point is when your system loses the least amount of solar energy while converting and transmitting it through your system. It represents the optimal combination of voltage and current that allows your solar panel to generate the most power.

how does an mppt charge controller work
The optimal system amperage and voltage levels vary throughout the day. The angle at which the sun strikes your panels plays a role. Cloud cover, precipitation, and temperature also influence the required levels, thus, your system's optimal voltage and amperage combination. One must do more than perform a calculation to navigate all of that.

Herein lies the importance of an MPPT solar charge controller. The charge controller digitally monitors all inputs and continuously tracks the optimal levels. It then modulates the current from the solar panel and the battery voltage. It constantly adjusts these levels to bring you as close as feasible to the maximum power point at any given time, allowing your system to operate at peak efficiency.

How does Battery Voltage Influence the MPPT Solar Charge Controller?

Unlike battery inverters, most MPPT solar charge controllers are compatible with various battery voltages. For instance, most charge controllers between 10A and 30A can charge a 12V or 24V battery. In contrast, most charge controllers with larger capacities or higher input voltages are designed for use with 24V or 48V battery systems. A select few, including the Victron 150V range, are compatible with all battery voltages between 12V and 48V.

In addition to the current (A) rating, the battery voltage limits the maximum capacity of a solar array connected to a solar charge controller. The accompanying diagram shows that a 24V battery connects significantly more solar energy to a 20A solar charge controller than a 12V battery.

How Solar Panel Voltage Influences MPPT Solar Charge Controller?

All solar panels have two voltage ratings measured under standard test conditions (STC) and a 25°C cell temperature. The first is the operational voltage of the solar panel, which is the maximum power voltage (Vmp). At high temperatures, the Vmp will decrease substantially and vary slightly depending on the amount of sunlight.

For the MPPT to function well, it is imperative that the operational voltage of the solar panel (Vmp) consistently exceeds the battery charge voltage by a few volts, even under elevated temperature conditions.

How Does A Jackery Portable Power Station Work?

Jackery Portable Power Stations are straightforward charging devices that leverage solar energy. The process involves establishing a connection between Portable Power Stations and Jackery Solar Panels (Jackery Solar Generators), then positioning them in direct sunlight to facilitate solar energy conversion into electrical power.

how Jackery solar generator work
The electrical energy is converted into a suitable format for energizing electronic devices using an inverter within the power station.

The Jackery Solar Generators are constructed and designed with a high degree of user-friendliness in mind. The only requirement is connecting the Jackery Solar Panels to the Portable Power Stations. Solar panels produce electrical power when exposed to sunlight.

The solar charging line enables the transmission of electrical energy to the Portable Power Stations, which is converted into a form that can power various devices. The excess electricity produced will be retained at this location.

Connect the Portable Power Stations to the electronic device you wish to charge or use. Automatic energy transfer from the power plant to your device will occur. The complete procedure is uncomplicated.

MPPT VS. PWM: What's The Difference?

PWM, also called pulse width modulation solar charge controllers, directly connect the solar array and the battery and use a primary 'rapid switch' to modulate or control battery charging. The switch remains open until the battery reaches the voltage for absorption charging. The controller then swiftly opens and closes to modulate the current and keep the battery voltage constant.

MPPT is an acronym for Maximum Power Point Tracker; these charge controllers are far more sophisticated than PWM charge controllers and allow the solar panel to work at its maximum power point, or more precisely, at the optimal voltage and current for maximum power output. 

PWM controllers are typically more compact and operate at battery voltage, whereas MPPT solar charge controllers use more advanced technology to operate at maximal power voltage. This maximizes the energy generated, which becomes increasingly significant in colder conditions as the array voltage surpasses the battery voltage.

MPPT controllers can also operate with significantly higher voltages and lower array currents, resulting in fewer parallel strings and smaller wire sizes due to less voltage loss.

mppt vs pwm solar charge controller
PWM controllers must be used with arrays whose voltage matches the battery's, restricting the modules that can be used. Numerous 60-cell modules with a maximum power voltage (Vmp) of approximately 30V are compatible with MPPT controllers but not PWM controllers.

MPPT Solar Charge Controller

PWM Solar Charge Controller

Battery Voltage

Convert excess input voltage into amperage

The voltage of the array is reduced to match the voltage of the battery

Solar Panel Voltage

Operate at or higher Vmp

Generally operate below Vmp

Suitable for

It is ideal for large module setups with a reduced cost per unit of power

Suitable for small module configurations

Weather Condition

Provide more boost than PWM, especially during cold days and when the battery voltage is low

Often chosen for scorching climates, which will not yield as much MPPT boost

MPPT VS. PWM: Which One Is Better?

MPPT solar charge controllers operate at array voltages that exceed the battery's voltage. These controllers can enhance the energy yield from solar arrays by 5 to 30% compared to PWM controllers, with a specific increase contingent upon prevailing climate circumstances.

The MPPT controller adjusts the array's operating voltage and current throughout the day to maximize the array's power output (amperage x voltage).

Since MPPT controllers operate arrays at voltages higher than battery voltage, they are compatible with a broader range of solar modules and array configurations. In addition, they can accommodate systems with smaller wire diameters.

Unlike PWM controllers, MPPT controllers can support arrays that would otherwise exceed the charge controller's maximal operating power limits. The controller accomplishes this by limiting the array's current consumption during high solar energy production periods, typically in the middle of the day.

Jackery Portable Power Stations with MPPT Charge Controllers

Jackery is a manufacturer specializing in solar products, such as Jackery Solar Panels, Portable Power Stations, and Jackery Solar Generators.

A Jackery Portable Power Station contains a pure sine wave inverter and MPPT solar charge controller to ensure a consistent and more efficient power supply. The Jackery portable power station is a battery-powered inverter generator with AC outlets, DC carports, and USB charging terminals for powering your devices.

Whether you're planning camping excursions, off-grid living adventures, or seeking a backup power source, Jackery portable power stations are an excellent source of electricity for your activities.        

Explorer 2000 Pro

Explorer 1000 Pro

Explorer 500 





Surge Power




Charge Controller

MPPT Solar Charge Controller

MPPT Solar Charge Controller

MPPT Solar Charge Controller










3+2 Years

3+2 Years


Output Ports

2*AC Output: 230V, 2200W, peak 4400W; 2*USB-A: Quick Charge 3.0x2, 18W Max; 2*USB-C: 100W Max, (5V, 12V, 9V, 15V, 20V up to 5A); 1*Carport: 12V⎓10A

2*AC Output: 230V, 1000W, peak 2000W; 2*USB-A: Quick Charge 3.0x2, 18W Max; 2*USB-C: 100W Max, (5V, 9V, 15V, 12V, 20V up to 5A); 1*Carport: 12V⎓10A

1*AC Output: 240V, 500W, peak 1000W; 2*DC Outputs: 12V⎓7A; 1*USB-A: 5V⎓2.4A; 1*Carport: 12V⎓10A

Working Hours

Microwave(700W): 2.4H

Kettle(800W): 2.1H

Drill(900W): 1.9H

Blender(300W): 5.6H

Toaster(650W): 2.6H

Fridge(300W): 5.6H

Microwave(700W): 1.1H

Kettle(800W): 1H

Drill(900W): 0.9H

Blender(300W): 2.7H

Toaster(650W): 1.2H

Fridge(300W): 2.7H

Microwave(700W): 0.6H

Kettle(800W): 0.55H

Drill(900W): 0.48H

Blender(300W): 1.5H

Toaster(650W): 0.7H

Fridge(300W): 1.5H

The immense charging capacity (2,160Wh) of the Portable Power Station Explorer 2000 Pro can power all of your necessary appliances, including microwaves, blenders, refrigerators, and more. It is also suitable for off-grid activities, outdoor excursions, and emergency use at home.

The power station can be entirely charged with 6* SolarSaga 100W solar panels in less than five and a half hours and an AC wall outlet in only two hours. This exceptional charging experience allows you to recharge while off the grid quickly.

The best MPPT solar charge controller, pure sine wave inverter, and premium lithium battery contain two chips for dual battery protection and four temperature core detectors, ensuring the optimal combination of safe and dependable charging and taking safety to the greatest extent possible.

Jackery Explorer 2000 pro with mppt charge controller
Jackery Explorer 1000 Pro Portable Power Station is an utterly compatible power station that simultaneously charges multiple devices! With a 1002Wh battery capacity, the 1000W portable power station keeps your electronic devices charged during camping and power disruptions. 

The features include an industry-leading BMS, pure sine wave technology, an MPPT solar charge controller, 94V-0 fire classification material, a foldable handle, and a low 11.5kg weight. The Explorer 1000 Pro has a collapsible carry handle for transportability and portability. Save space for any travel on the go. In addition, its inventive, bright screen display provides crystal-clear viewing of 18 functional modes.

With an AC input of up to 800W, the Explorer 1000 Pro's complete wall charge takes 1.8 hours. Ideal for camping and power disruptions; compatible with all Jackery solar panels. The two 100W PD ports provide devices with constant, rapid power. Supports seven devices concurrently with a capacity of 1002Wh and multiple charging methods via 2*1000W AC ports, 2* USB-A ports, 2* USB-C ports, and a DC vehicle port.

Jackery Explorer 1000 pro with mppt charge controller
The Jackery Explorer 500 Portable Power Station provides long-lasting power for low-to-high-powered devices. The power station is ideal for outdoor adventurers and emergency home backup solutions due to its high 518Wh battery capacity, foldable handle, ergonomic design, and industry-leading BMS technology. It is exceedingly portable, weighing only 6.4 kilograms.

Jackery Explorer 500 Portable Power Station includes 1 * AC outlet, 2 * DC ports, 1 * carport, and 3 * USB-A ports for charging low- to high-power devices, such as air compressors, CPAP machines, televisions, mini-refrigerators, and more. The power station's compact size and lightweight design suit road trips and RV camping.

The Jackery Explorer 500 Portable Power Station eliminates the need to locate an electrical outlet for charging. Multiple alternative charging methods, such as solar panels, vehicle outlets, and electric generators, ensure you can set your equipment anywhere, at any time.

Jackery Explorer 500 with mppt charge controller

MPPT Solar Charge Controller FAQs

These are the most frequently asked queries regarding the MPPT solar charge controller:

1. How to determine the size of an MPPT solar charge controller?

Determine what tasks or appliances will be operating and for how long as the initial step. It is determined by multiplying the appliance's power rating (W) by its average runtime (h). Alternatively, you can reproduce the average current draw (A) by the average duration (h).

Energy required in Watt hours (Wh) = Power (W) x Time (hrs)

The total daily energy demand can be calculated once this is determined for each appliance or device.

Determine the battery sizes next. The total burden in Ah or Wh determines the battery's capacity. Lead-acid batteries are measured in Ah, whereas lithium batteries are measured in Wh or Ah. The allowable daily depth of discharge (DOD) for lead-acid and lithium batteries is drastically different.

Following that, size the solar system. The solar size (W) should be sufficient to completely charge the battery on a sunny day typical to your location. There are numerous factors to consider, including panel orientation, season, and shading issues.

Power (W) = Voltage (V) x Current (I)

The size of the MPPT solar charge controller should correspond to the size of the solar panel. Using the power formula is an easy method to calculate this.  

2. How to Choose A Solar Charge Controller?

The longevity and performance of your entire photovoltaic (PV) system rely on your selection of a charge controller that is both efficient and well-designed. By optimizing the power generated by your solar modules, you will come closer to offsetting your reliance on traditional utility power or another energy source.

In addition, you will safeguard your battery bank and protect yourself from any unforeseen and needless replacement costs. As you design your solar energy system, you should invest in and investigate your solar charge controller.

how to choose a solar charge controller

You must select an option that is scalable and suitable for your energy requirements and ensure sufficient battery storage for the solar modules you have chosen to install.

3. Is an MPPT solar charge controller worth it?

The size of the differences between the various possibilities for that transaction determines whether a large buy is worthwhile. It boils down to whether the long-term benefits, such as improved energy output, are adequate to outweigh the more significant expense of an MPPT solar charge controller.

If you have a simple system, the answer could be no. Similarly, you rarely encounter rainy or cloudy weather. In that case, the fine-tuned calibration and frequent adjustments provided by an MPPT controller may be more advantageous to justify the added expense. The additional power you gain may be minimal, so it may take considerable time to realize the cost savings you anticipate from using an MPPT charge controller. 

Final Thoughts

Your solar energy system is a substantial investment for your home, business, or outdoor excursions; an MPPT solar charge controller helps you maximize the return on that investment by enabling consistent and efficient electricity generation. Jackery Portable Power Stations are outfitted with MPPT solar charge controllers to guarantee a seamless and enjoyable experience.

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