The Ultimate Guide to Battery Capacity

Knowledge ·
The Ultimate Guide to Battery Capacity

Our fast-paced world means we depend on movable electronics to stay in touch, learn new things, and have fun.


We've grown used to using these tech items for everything from computers and electric cars to smartphones and tablets. So, knowing how much power a battery can store is essential.   


We'll talk about the basics of battery capacity in this piece, such as what it is, how to measure it, and the things that can change it. With its big battery capacity and excellent performance, the Jackery Portable Power Station is miles ahead of other products that do the same thing. It also has a smart BMS and cutting-edge temperature monitors to make charging safer.

Table of Contents

Key Takeaways:

Battery capacity is the total energy the battery makes through electrochemical reactions.

The ampere-hour (Ah) or its subunit, the milliampere-hour (mAh), is often used to describe the size of a battery.

Battery Capacity (C) = Constant Current of Discharge Battery (I) x Discharge Time (T)

Many factors influence the battery capacity, such as the number of battery packs, electrolyte density, battery chemistry, temperature, charge cycles, and discharge rate.

Jackery Portable Power Stations adopt high-quality lithium-ion and LiFePO4 batteries with higher capacities. Here, we recommend Jackery Explorer 2000 Plus, 1000 Pro and 300 Plus portable power stations.

l We also mention how to calculate the battery capacity for a caravan.

What Is Battery Capacity? 

Understanding battery capacity is important because it tells you how much power the battery can hold and how much power it can give you when it's drained. Battery capacity is the total energy the battery makes through electrochemical reactions. It can be shown in ampere-hours (Ah), watt hours (Wh), or kilowatt hours (kWh).

There are several ways to talk about how much power a battery has. In simple terms, it's the total amount of energy that the electrochemical reactions inside the battery make. Most of the time, ampere-hours (Ah), watt hours (Wh), or kilowatt hours (kWh) are used to measure battery power.

The total energy a battery can hold is called its capacity. This number tells you how long the battery can run without being charged. Knowing that the higher the battery's rated capacity, the longer it will last between charges is essential. This is true for any gadget that runs on batteries.  

How to Measure Battery Capacity? 

Despite what most people think, figuring out battery capacity is relatively easy. Here are some simple steps and things you should know to figure out battery capacity.

If the battery is the right size and type, it may be stated in mAh, Ah, Wh, or kWh. Do not worry; you can always change the unit of measurement if you know the battery's power and the unit of measurement.

Battery Capacity Unit

The ampere-hour (Ah) or its subunit, the milliampere-hour (mAh), is often used to describe the size of a battery. Besides these two numbers, watt-hours or kilowatt-hours are used to measure batteries with more power.

As a general rule, mAh units are used to measure small power banks; Ah units are used to calculate car batteries; Wh units are used to measure solar or portable generators; and kWh units are used to measure home energy storage systems.

To show this, let's use Ah: This unit of battery capacity tells you how much power the battery can give off in an hour. A 2Ah battery, for instance, can provide two amps of power for one hour before it needs to be charged again. In the same way, we can also create other units.

Battery Capacity Calculate Formula

The following method is usually used to determine how much power a battery has.

Battery Capacity (C) = Constant Current of Discharge Battery (I) x Discharge Time (T)

A battery's capacity refers to the entire quantity of electricity it can store. It is generally measured in Ampere-hours (Ah) or Watt-hours (Wh). The amperes (A) that make up the battery's steady current show a current that doesn't change over time. Time, measured in hours (h), is when the battery can keep a specific power going. 

Say a battery is drained with an 800mA current that doesn't change for two hours. How much power does it have left?

800mA x 2H = 1600Ah

You can always pick the best battery by comparing how much power it has to its size in watt-hours. But you can only compare two amp-hour rates if the voltages of the batteries are different.

How can we measure batteries that have different amounts of power? It is straightforward to change the battery size of the units to the same one. You can always change from one unit of measurement to another as long as you have the battery power and the unit of measurement.

battery unit measurement

If the battery's rating only says "amp-hours," use this method to change it to "watt-hours":

Watt-hour (Wh) = Ampere-hour (Ah) × Voltage (V)

Say there is a 200Ah battery that has 12V power. How many watt-hours does it have? It makes a 12V, 200Ah battery that can hold 2400Wh of power.

Watt hour = 200Ah × 12V = 2400 Wh (2.4kWh)

What Factors Affect The Battery Capacity?

Different batteries have different named limits regarding how much power they can hold. Depending on what they're meant to do, they come in various sizes, shapes, chemical makes-ups, standard voltages, and charging abilities.  

The chemical makeup of the materials used to make the battery and outside factors like weather are just a few things that can change its capacity. The battery's capacity will be affected by the following things in general.

Number & Size of Battery Packs

The link between the number and size of electrode plates in a battery and the battery's total volume is called the "number and size of electrode plates." Most of the time, these plates are made of conductive materials like lead or lithium. They store and release electricity.

The amount of plates is essential to figuring out how much power a battery has. The more plates there are in a battery, the more surface area there is for storing electricity. Because the surface area is more significant, the battery can hold more power and run longer.

The plates' thickness and form also significantly impact how much energy the battery can store. The total amount of energy that can be saved in the battery is based on the size of the plates.

The battery can discharge power at different rates depending on the width of the plates. Thinner plates allow for faster discharge rates. The flow of electricity inside the battery is controlled by the shape of the plates, which in turn affects how well the battery works overall.

Electrolyte Density

The electrolyte density tells you how concentrated the electrical gel or liquid solution is inside the battery. It helps the electrochemical processes that make electricity, which is very important for batteries to work well.

In battery operation, higher electrolyte density numbers do make it hold more power and have a higher capacity. However, this improvement makes the wires wear out faster, which shortens the battery's life. Lower levels, on the other hand, put less stress on the electrodes, which makes the battery last longer. That being said, it will lower the battery's power and capacity.

Battery Chemistry

How well and how much power a battery has depends significantly on the chemistry of the things that make it up. Bad chemical reactions can lower the battery's storage capacity when it charges and discharges. This is because chemical reactions involve the flow of electrons, which move energy from the battery to the circuitry that goes with it.

Changing the chemical also changes the type of battery, such as lithium-ion, lithium-polymer, sodium-ion, etc., which will also depend on the type of battery.

types of solar batteries

Aging & Charge Cycles

Over time, battery capacity gradually decreases.

Aging or Time: Calendar Life (Typically 1% to 2% capacity loss per year)

Discharge & Charge Cycles: The battery capacity decreases as a battery charges/discharges.

Like other chemistries used in recharging batteries, lead-acid chemistries can only be used several times before the chemical runs out. When the chemicals run out, the battery is no longer helpful and needs to be changed.

Using a lithium-ion or lithium-iron-phosphate battery once a month will last much longer than using it daily. In the same way, Jackery Portable Power Stations use lithium-ion and LiFePO4 batteries to ensure they have more power and last longer.


We know that temperature has a direct effect on battery life. In other words, the battery's power goes down as the temperature goes down and up as the temperature goes up. Most of the time, charge your battery between 10°C and 30°C.

If you charge the battery at too high or too low of a temperature, it could get damaged forever. Also, batteries have shorter lives when they are warmer, even though they can hold more power when they are warmer. When the temperature drops to -22°F, the battery's capacity drops by 50%, but its life span grows by about 60%. 

The values for battery power are based on a temperature of 25°C in the room. If the average yearly temperature is 8.3°C (15°F) above 25°C (77°F), the battery will last half as long.

Discharge Depth & Rate

Depth of discharge, or DOD, is the total holding capacity of a battery that can be used safely before it needs to be charged again. Even though the battery will still work below the suggested DOD, it may get damaged permanently and have a shorter cycle life. 

For each type of battery, there is a suggested DOD to keep it from wearing out too quickly. For lead-acid batteries, the safest DOD is about 50%. For LFP batteries, the safest DOD is between 80 and 90%.

How quickly a battery is used up affects how long it lasts. When devices like portable power stations have AC output that changes depending on how many machines are running, using them at full power all the time may damage them thermally and shorten their cycle life.

Give the batteries a break or let them run sometimes when they don't need as much power.

Jackery Portable Power Stations with Higher Capacities

Large-capacity batteries are beneficial when you need to use something for a long time because they can store more electricity. Large-capacity batteries also tend to have a higher energy density and a longer service life. This means they can store more energy in the same amount of space and weight and must be replaced less often.

Jackery Portable Power Stations have such large batteries that they can give you a steady power source at home or on your outdoor travels.  

how jackery solar generator works

The Jackery Portable Power Station has a high-quality lithium battery, an MPPT charge controller, and a pure sine wave inverter to charge your phones, radios, lights, batteries, and other personal and household electronics, especially Explorer 2000 Plus, 1000 Pro and 300 Plus. 

Jackery Explorer 2000 Plus

The Explorer 2000 Plus portable power station by Jackery significantly enhances the available choices for portable power. With its substantial capacity and impressive power output, this device can provide electricity to regular caravans for an extended time, making it ideal for outdoor excursions or as a home backup power supply. Adding battery cells to the Jackery Explorer 2000 Plus significantly boosts its capacity from 2 kWh to 12 kWh, leading to a revolutionary change in household backup power provision.

The Explorer 2000 Plus boasts a maximum power output of 3000W, 30% greater than other 2 kWh models. The bulk of critical household appliances are powered gadgets. Although the Explorer 2000 Plus is commonly used, it can be ultimately charged within 6 hours by utilising 6 SolarSaga 100W solar panels. The power source achieves self-sufficiency by harnessing solar energy rather than relying on the power grid for charging.

The supplementary battery pack can be recharged using solar panels, offering increased versatility while enhancing charging efficiency and reducing time consumption. Jackery's integrated battery management system (BMS) allows short-circuit protection, voltage regulation, temperature regulation, and other advanced safety functions.  

Jackery Explorer 2000 Plus

Jackery Explorer 1000 Pro

The Jackery Explorer 1000 Pro is a remarkably quiet generator, with noise levels as low as 46 dB. It has a lifespan of over ten years and can be fully recharged in just 1.8 hours. This device's dual 100W PD design provides a consistent and reliable power supply, ensuring that all necessary appliances remain operational during a power loss.

The Explorer 1000 Pro power station is a rechargeable device with a capacity of 1002Wh. This allows it to power various appliances, including a television, CPAP machine, E-bike, refrigerator, and other devices, covering around 93% of commonly used equipment.

In addition, it is equipped with two 100W PD connectors and two USB-C ports, ensuring reliable and fast charging for various devices such as smartphones, cameras, and laptops. The MPPT technology guarantees a solar charging efficiency of 99%. Furthermore, this system supports recharging techniques through walls, vehicles, and solar recharge.

jackery explorer 1000 pro

Jackery Explorer 300 Plus

The Jackery Explorer 300 Plus is a lightweight and practical power supply designed to meet the power needs for various situations such as kayaking, picnicking, camping, road trips, and emergency power backup.

This power station has a unique Battery Management System (BMS). It has 52 safety features and 12 BMS algorithms that work together to keep the device and any attached appliances as safe as possible. It also has four kinds of physical security to ensure everyone is safe.

This model stands out because it has an intelligent app control feature that lets users quickly manage the battery through Wi-Fi or Bluetooth. This makes it more modern and convenient to use. It's also very light - only 8.27 pounds - so it's an excellent choice for people who are always on the go.

jackery explorer 300 plus

How Much Battery Capacity Do I Need for A Caravan?

It's a question that many people who like to travel ask. What size battery do I need for my RV to camp for free? You don't want to get this wrong because we depend on electronics. Don't worry about getting the wrong size battery. Our guide will help you do it right the first time. 

Determine The Power Usage

To begin, you won't be running just one TV. There will be different things you want to run for various amounts of time. This is what will eventually tell you how much battery power you need. Let us look at some of the most popular 12V electronics and determine how many amps they use.



Ceiling LED Lights


Flood Lights


12V Compressor Fridge


12V Flat-screen TV


Water Pump


USB Charger Outlet


Stereo System


(Data Source: Go RV)

Different amounts of time will be spent on each of those gadgets. You might have three floodlights outside but only use them for two hours a night. Each draws 3A while they're on, meaning each will use up 6Ah of your mobile battery in two hours.

However, since you plan to leave your fridge on all the time, and as we already said, the fan needs 6A. But fridges only need the motor to be on some of the time. It turns on and off by itself based on the setting and outside temperature.

A job cycle is the name for this. When cool outside, the generator might only run 30 minutes every hour, using 3Ah of power. That adds up to (24*3) 72Ah over 24 hours.

Calculate The Battery Capacity Needed

You need to calculate how many devices you will use and how long each day to determine how much battery power you need. Add it all up, then divide the result by the days you want it to run. This is a typical example:

jackery au 2

Looking at the table above, a 100Ah mobile battery, let alone three, won't even last a day. You're right, but remember that we have yet to consider charging.

It doesn't matter how good the solar charging system is in your caravan if it rains for two or three days. You will get little or no charging done.

On the other hand, look at the above example and change how you use your tools to use fewer amp hours in 24 hours, especially if you know bad weather is coming. During the 24-hour time, you can cut your total power use to less than 100 amp hours.

Battery Capacity FAQs

The following are the most frequently asked questions about battery capacity in Australia:

  1. 1. What does 5000mAh battery capacity mean?

In particular, "mAh" stands for milliampere-hour, a number used to measure how much energy a battery can hold. Because it has 5000mAh of power, the battery can provide a steady current of 1A for 5 hours, 0.5A for 10 hours, 5A for 1 hour, and so on.

  1. 2. How do youmeasure the capacity of a battery?

Use the formula Capacity (mAh) = Current (mA) times Time (hours) to find the capacity. If a 2000mAh battery drains at a steady 600mA and takes 4 hours to hit the cutoff voltage, the capacity is 600mA times 4 hours, which equals 2400mAh.

  1. 3. What is a good battery capacity?

The most your battery can hold is how well it has worked since your phone came from the source. It's normal for batteries to lose power over time, which is why an old phone battery will hold less and less energy. The best range for phone operation is between 100% and 80% of its maximum capacity.   

  1. 4. How long will a 5000 mAh battery last in hours?  

How long does 5000mAh last? Most of the time, 5,000 mAh will give you 100 mA of use for 50 hours, ten mA for 500 hours, or one mA for 5,000 hours. If it has 4000mAh, is it good? If your smartphone has a 4,000mAh battery, it should last well over a day, based on how much you use it.

  1. 5. What is the difference between the power and capacity of a battery?

The energy that can be saved in a battery is called its capacity. A battery has a limited amount of power when it is fully charged. This is essential because it tells you what to do with the battery. Cameras and other gadgets that use a lot of energy need batteries that put out a lot of power, like our Ultra range batteries. Things that are low drain, like clocks and remote controls, only need a small amount of energy to work.

Final Thoughts

In short, before purchasing a battery, it is crucial to be aware of its capacity. There are so many electronic gadgets and battery types that you need to pay close attention to battery capacity and the unit measures that go with it if you want to get the most out of your battery.

How long the device can work before it needs to be charged again depends on the battery's size. With the tips in this article, you should be able to pick a better battery and keep it working well for as long as possible. In the same way, the Jackery Portable Power Stations are excellent choices for travel power stations. 

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